I have yet to see anything in the works mentioned that was not considered
and clarified by Charles Sanders Peirce in the 19th century.
Here's an example quote from the Journal of Speculative Philosophy (1868):
"Philosophy ought to imitate the successful sciences in its methods, so
far as to proceed only from tangible premises which can be subjected to
careful scrutiny, and to trust rather to the multitude and variety of its
arguments than to the conclusiveness of any one. Its reasoning should not
form a chain which is no stronger than its weakest link, but a cable whose
fibers may be ever so slender, provided they are sufficiently numerous and
Granted that all the people you mention are interesting, and have said
interesting things, they are individually rowing down their established
cultural canals, and have not taken the painstaking thorough route that
Peirce took to understanding. Before he set forth his own perspectives he
studied all the major philosophers to do what his father asked: study
them all and show where they are incorrect.
Being a mathematician, a logician, a chemist, an expert on geodetic
measurements, etc., etc., etc., Peirce demolished all the fuzzy thinking
of people like Descartes. When I told a man in England that he had
demolished Hegel, I got a reply saying that that was no harder than taking
wings off flies.
Anyway you can read Peirce's stuff at very low cost. If there were a
value-added tax on this, you would go broke; while you could all the rest
of your authors and have money left over for a McDonald's "big breakfast".
Onward and upward,
-- JOHN WARFIELD Johnwfield@aol.com